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Presenters: Delegation vs Just Making A Struct™

Dave Copeland

Like most good Rails developers, we use presenters at Stitch Fix. We typically implement them using delegation, but I’ve been finding that the time savings of this approach over just making a struct-like class is negligable, and results in code that’s harder to change and harder to use.

What is a presenter?

Briefly, a presenter is a form of adapter. You use it when your view requires data that isn’t in the form provided by your controller. For example, at Stitch Fix, we track events that occur on our shipments (a shipment being what we send to our clients and the basic unit of work for our internal systems). As described in my previous post, these events are either attributed to a client or to an internal user.

The view of an event, however, requires simply a username—who initiated the event? In classic Rails, you might do:

<% if @event.admin_user.present? %>
  <%= @event.admin_user.name %>
<% else %>
  <%= @event.client.display_name %>
<% end %>

You might put this into a helper, but helpers have a way of getting out of control. An alternative is to adapt our controller to our view by means of a presenter:

class EventPresenter
  def initialize(event)
    @event = event

  def username
    if event.admin_user.present?

Which turns our template into:

<%= @event.username %>

where @event is actually an EventPresenter. The “problem” here is that we also need access to other attributes of Event, such as the event_name and created_at. In a sense, we want our EventPresenter to behave just like the Event that was given to its initializer, but with the additional username method as well. We can do this by telling EventPresenter to delegate methods to its internal Event instance.


Rails provides the method delegate that works as a “class macro”, allowing you to declare attributes that get their values from another object.

class EventPresenter
  def initialize(event)
    @event = event

  delegate :created_at, :event_name, to: "@event"

This means that objects of this class respond to the messages created_at and event_name and that they will do so by passing the message along to the @event ivar. Basically, shorthand for:

  def created_at

This tends to work pretty well, but you’ll notice that the implementation of EventPresenter is very tightly coupled to Event. If we want to create and display events in some other way, we really can’t unless we have a bonafide Event instance.

I recently ran into this problem where I needed to merge two event streams into one logical view. We (unfortunatley) have a second log of changes made to shipments, and it’s not feasible to convert the code generating the second log to use the shipment events we have. Worse, the schema of that log is fairly different from the shipment events.

While accessing the log is a snap, there wasn’t a clear way to fit it into my existing view, which was based on EventPresenter. I saw three possible options:

  • Create non-persisted Event instances, based on the log entries, and feed those to EventPresenter
  • Create a LogPresenter that exposed the same interface as EventPresenter, but adapter the second log entries
  • Rework EventPresenter so that it could “present” either type of object.

I chose the later by changing EventPresenter into a simple struct that could get its values from anywhere.

Structs Can Separate Concerns

A struct is often called a “Plain Ole’ Ruby Object” or “Plain Ole’ Java Object”, but is simply a class that groups data together, providing access to it via methods like so:

class Event
  def initialize(event_name, created_at, admin_user, client)
    @event_name = event_name
    @create_at  = created_at
    @admin_user = admin_user
    @client     = client

  attr_reader :event_name, :created_at, :admin_user, :client

You might be familiar with Ruby’s Struct class. It’s a nice attempt to make generating a class like this simpler, but it’s flawed:

  • attributes are mutatable, which is not needed nor desired when generating a view
  • the constructor it generates doesn’t use an options hash, but instead a big blob of positional arguments, making construction difficult to understand

Stitch Fix has our own version of Struct called ImmutableStruct which solves both of these. For example:

EventPresenter = ImmutableStruct.new(:event_name,

nil_event = EventPresenter.new # => all fields nil

name_only = EventPresenter.new(event_name: 'printed_labels')
name_only.event_name # => printed_labels

everything = EventPresenter.new(event_name: 'styled',
                                created_at: 4.days.ago,
                                admin_user: AdminUser.find(user_id))

Notice how our EventPresenter here has nothing to do with the Event class. We can create objects usable by our view in any way we’d like. That means that to merge our two event log streams, we merely create EventPresenter instances.

We’ve lost the delgation aspects, so we must explicitly map the fields of our objects. To do this, I created factory methods inside the EventPresenter class itself:

EventPresenter = ImmutableStruct.new(:event_name,
                                     :client) do
  def self.from_event(event)
    self.new(event_name: event.event_name,
             created_at: event.created_at,
             admin_user: event.admin_user,
                 client: event.client)

  def self.from_secondary_log(log)
    self.new(event_name: log.action_description,
             created_at: log.action_date,
                 client: log.user.client)

We can then merge our log streams like so:

events = shipment.events
logs   = SecondaryLogs.for_shipment(shipment)

shipment_event_log = (
    events.map(&EventPresenter.method(:from_event) +

By using a struct instead of a delegator, we’ve separated what an EventPresenter is from how its constructed. Because our “classic” presenter relied on delegation, there was no easy way to change it to get its attributes’ values from a different place. Here, the attribute values are simply whatever was given to the constructor.

This also allows us to easily create instances of EventPresenter without having any particular backing data, which is handy for testing.

But, Lines of Code!

Yes, it’s slightly longer than our delegation-backed version, but it’s not that much longer, possibly taking an extra 30 seconds to type out, and it’s conceptually the same size. It’s more flexible, simple to construct, and simple to understand. It’s just a Ruby class in its most basic form.

This is another way of saying that we get better, simpler code, without almost the same effort, if we just create a basic class instead of using delegation. ImmutableStruct is only 26 lines of code (it’s very similar to the values gem, but works a bit more to my personal tastes).

So, next time you’re thinking about delegation when trying to adapt two different bits of code, consider a simple struct. It’s not that much more difficult to create, and makes your code flexible and easy to understand while making tests easier to write.


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